Finding a Home After Homelessness
Understanding Housing Emergencies and Available Housing Resources
More than half a million Americans are experiencing homelessness on any given night. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness, most people who experience homelessness are single adults. However, families with children make up 35 percent of the homeless population and veterans make up around nine percent.1
On a single night in January 2017, an estimated 57,971 families were homeless, and around 17,000 of them were living on the street, in a car or in another place not fit a human to live. That same night, around 40,056 veterans and nearly 41,000 youth were counted as homeless.
What Causes Homelessness?
In 2017, 6.7 million households spent more than 50 percent of their income on rent.
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) estimates that around half of the people living in supportive housing programs either had a substance use disorder, a mental illness, or both.
The other roughly 50 percent of individuals are without a home due to other circumstances, including:
Other common reasons for homelessness include domestic violence, reduced work hours and large, unanticipated bills that throw finances into turmoil.
Who Experiences Homelessness?
About 70 percent of the people experiencing homelessness are men.
33 percent of the people experiencing homelessness are families with children.
25 percent of people experiencing chronic homelessness are also struggling with a disability.
African Americans represent 12 percent of the general population but represent 40 percent of the homeless population. American Indian, Alaska Natives, Multiracial and Hispanic populations are also over represented in homelessness count numbers.
Young families are at risk: 51.3 percent of families with children who were homeless in 2016 were between the ages of 18 and 30.
10 to 15% of all people who become homeless will experience chronic homelessness.
The Good News
The good news is that since 2007, homelessness has decreased by 14. 4 percent overall and by 34. 3 percent among veterans and 27. 4 percent among people experiencing chronic homelessness. This is mostly due a shift in homeless assistance, which now puts focuses more on permanent housing solutions and less on transitional housing programs.
Misconceptions about Homelessness
If you were to ask anyone what they imagined they would be as an adult, none would respond “homeless”. No one wants to end up homeless. Sometimes people stay in camps or on the streets because shelters requirements are challenging for their mental illness or substance use disorder. Other times, people begin to accept going without housing because its what they’ve grown accustom to- that doesn’t mean they are choosing it; instead it means they need help and supports navigating the journey back into housing.
At times, the circumstances surrounding someones life can be misleading. We assume that because we had reliable transportation growing up that everyone did- or that everyone lived in the same house their entire childhood, like we did. However, most people who become homeless come from circumstances of abuse or neglect. The odds of someone from the general population becoming homeless is 1 in 194. The odds of becoming homeless out of foster care is 1 in 11.
People without housing are vulnerable and lack the security of stable housing. This means they are more likely to be the victims of violent crimes. Although people who are experiencing homelessness may have an arrest record, it is frequently non-violent crime related to not having a home such as public urination or trespassing.
Most people stay in the community where they first became homeless. According to National data, only 25% of people experiencing homelessness are transient.
The Cost of Homelessness
Former U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun Donovan says the cost of ignoring homelessness is about $40,000 per person. This is the total spent on shelters, emergency rooms and jails for people experiencing homelessness. The cost to permanently house these people could be as low as $13,000 to $25,000- essentially cutting the cost for supporting people experiencing homelessness in half.
During a housing emergency there are many factors that influence the situation. It can be challenging to travel to and from work when experiencing homelessness as transportation may be limited.
In 2010, a third of college educated adults had jobs that did not pay a living wage. Leaving them vulnerable in cases of an unexpected cost like a car repair.
Around 25% of people experiencing homelessness are also employed. Shelter hours can also be very strict in some instances, making it challenging for working people without a home to secure a good nights sleep. Sleep deprivation can noticeable affect performance, including the ability to think clearly, react quickly and form memories. Lack of adequate sleep can also affect mood, irritability and anxiety. All of these factors can make it challenging to hold stable employment while also dealing with a housing emergency.
Homelessness can have a large impact on developing children. Homelessness can become a barrier to education, health, a sense of safety, and overall development in children. Children experiencing homelessness more frequently:
- Struggle with emotional and behavioral problems
- have serious health problems
- Experience a separation from family
- Repeat a grade, drop out of school or have other educational challenges
Types of Help for Finding a Home
The first step to getting help for homelessness is to get in touch with the shelter system in your community. Many communities have a 2-1-1 hotline with trained staff available around the clock to help people access emergency shelter, health care, food and other necessities. The Continuum of Care program is available in many communities and serves as the “front door” for homelessness services.
If your community doesn’t offer these programs, get in touch with your nearest Health and Human Services department for information and assistance. Different housing assistance programs have different requirements, but organizations that can’t help you will point you in the direction of those that can. A number of federal and state programs can help individuals and families find safe, affordable housing.
Types Of Help
Some Housing agencies have rapid re-housing program designed to connect families and individuals experiencing homelessness to permanent housing through individualized supportive services. The purpose is to reduce the amount of time and individual lives on the streets or in a shelter.
Public housing is owned by the government and provides housing for people with low incomes.
Public housing ranges from single family homes to high rise apartment buildings. The rent is affordable for residents who qualify.
Your local public housing agency can provide you with information about qualifying for and finding public housing.
HUD makes it possible for apartment owners to offer lower rents to low-income tenants.
It’s possible to find which apartments have rent payment assistance by searching online for subsidized housing, and then applying for the lowered rent at the management office of the apartment complex. 2
Depending upon demand, you may be placed onto a waiting list until an apartment becomes available.
An alternative to privately owned subsidized housing and public housing is the Housing Choice Voucher Program, previously referred to as Section 8, which allows you to find your own place to live and use a voucher to pay for some or all of the rent.
Applications for the Housing Choice Voucher Program can be completed through your local public housing agency. If you are currently experiencing homelessness, you may be able to be placed on a priority list, so make sure to include your current housing status when applying.
HUD also offers a program that helps public housing residents become homeowners.
A public housing authority may sell a residence or public housing development to eligible residents or organizations for the purposes of home ownership. Contact your local public housing agency for information about home ownership programs.
Throughout the country, HUD-approved housing counseling agencies provide advice to individuals concerning buying or renting a home, defaults, foreclosures, credit issues and homeless counseling.3
Funding may also be available depending upon availability and the housing agency. In order to locate the housing agency that serves your community, HUD created a housing agency locator.
Veterans experiencing homelessness can take advantage of a variety of resources to help find a home, including the National Call Center for Homeless Veterans, which offers confidential counseling around the clock for veterans at risk of homelessness.4
Additionally, the National Coalition for Homeless Veterans provides a directory of local providers of homeless services and offers help navigating the resources available.5
People who are homeless and disabled can apply for disability benefits through Social Security Disability Insurance, or SSDI. 7 Indicate that you’re homeless during the application process for help accessing additional resources.
Coordinated Entry and Continuum of Care
What is Coordinated Entry?
Coordinated entry is a process developed by HUD to ensure that everyone experiencing homelessness has fair and equal access to housing.8 The purpose is to quickly identifiy people in need of housing, assess their needs and connects them to housing and housing assistance as quickly as possible. This ensures that people and families with the highest vulnerability and most pressing needs receive top priority in housing placement. All homeless assistance organizations are involved in the coordinated entry process and help people access the system. Mental health, substance abuse service providers and Veteran’s Affairs medical centers are among the institutions that can serve as an access point for coordinated entry.
What does the Continuum of Care do?
The Continuum of Care system was initiated by HUD in 1994 to promote a coordinated, strategic approach for programs that assist families and individuals experiencing homelessness.9 Communities that have a Continuum of Care system in place recognize the importance of prevention, outreach and assessment, and they help people into emergency shelter, transitional programs, supportive housing, permanent housing and a wide range of support services that help people succeed in housing. Continuum of Care systems use the coordinated entry process to ensure fair and equal access to housing for all people experiencing homelessness.
Housing First Policies: How They Help
What is “Housing First”?
Housing First is a HUD-directed approach to addressing homelessness that removes barriers and preconditions to entry. The old approach only addressed individuals’ housing problems once they have participated in and graduated from a short-term residential treatment program or met other conditions. Housing First is quickly replacing the previous path to permanent housing. Under the old approach, homeless individuals were only offered housing once they could demonstrate that they were “ready” for it.
How does “Housing First” help?
Housing First policies are followed by the coordinated entry process and Continuum of Care system and prioritize helping people find housing as soon as possible, depending on availability and need. Housing First is based on a number of principles, according to HUD.10
Housing agencies using Housing First policies remove any preconditions and prerequisites that would bar someone from getting housing assistance. Supportive admissions policies are designed to screen in rather than screen out applicants, and a rapid and streamlined entry into housing reduces the anxiety of waiting for approval and assistance.
Housing First Principles
The Push Towards Permanent
It has been recently recognized that providing permanent housing solutions is the best practice for resolving homelessness. This means there is an understanding that the cure to homelessness is housing.
This understanding has led to an increase in permanent housing solutions for people experiencing homelessness. In 2007, 31 percent of beds dedicated to people experiencing homelessness were permanent housing options. As of 2018, that number has increased to 57 percent.
Reaching Out is the First Step
There’s a lot of help for homeless individuals at the city, state and federal levels. The first step to getting help for homelessness is to reach out to your local 2-1-1 hotline, Continuum of Care program, or contact the nearest Health and Human Services department. Programs for individuals experiencing homelessness provide emergency shelter to get people off the streets, and they assist with finding permanent, affordable housing. They provide access to a variety of services to address a range of problems that led to the housing emergency in the first place.
Homelessness takes a toll on your physical and emotional health, and getting help is essential for improving your safety, sense of wellbeing and quality of life. Getting back on your feet isn’t easy, but with the proper help, you can find your way back home.
- National Alliance to End Homelessness
- U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
- HUD Office of Housing Counseling
- U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
- National Coalition for Homeless Veterans
- National Runaway Safeline
- Social Security Administration
- HUD Coordinated Entry
- HUD Exchange
- HUD Guidance on Housing First